Espreso. Global

Act of Restoration of Ukrainian State: June 30 marks historic proclamation

30 June, 2024 Sunday
11:59

June 30 marks a pivotal date in Ukrainian history, as the Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State was proclaimed on this day in 1941

client/title.list_title

This event was a milestone in Ukraine's struggle for independence, leaving a lasting impact on the nation's memory.

The defeat of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921 was a severe blow to Ukrainians, leading to the loss of independence and the division of its territory among the Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. However, the fight for independence continued.

The Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic, along with hetman circles and various nationalist organizations, persisted in their efforts. During the interwar period, young Ukrainian patriots formed the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), playing a crucial role in the ongoing struggle.

The Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State was proclaimed during World War II when German troops occupied Western Ukraine after the Soviet retreat. At this moment, the OUN, led by Stepan Bandera, seized the opportunity to restore Ukraine's independence.

Proclamation of the Act

In June 1941, during WWII, a decision was made to announce the Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State in Lviv. Once Soviet troops left the city on June 29, the German army allowed Ukrainian nationalists to enter. At 4:30 a.m. on June 30, the Nachtigall Battalion, led by Roman Shukhevych, entered Lviv to ensure the event took place.

A few hours later, another group led by Yaroslav Stetsko, who was tasked by the Ukrainian National Committee to announce the restoration, entered the city. At 6:00 p.m., the Ukrainian National Assembly began at the local Prosvita cultural and educational society on Rynok Square, attended by delegates from across the country and representatives of Metropolitan Andrii Sheptytskyi.

At the meeting, the restoration of the Ukrainian State was proclaimed, recognized as the will of the Ukrainian people, and a temporary government headed by Yaroslav Stetsko – the Ukrainian State Board – was created. The first paragraph of the Act states:

By the will of the Ukrainian people, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists under the leadership of Stepan Bandera proclaims the restoration of the Ukrainian State, for which whole generations of the best sons of Ukraine laid down their heads.

The next point called for organizing temporary government structures in various territories, anticipating further integration with the main government planned for Kyiv.

In the western lands of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Government is created, which is subordinate to the Ukrainian National Government, which will be established in the capital of Ukraine – Kyiv, by the will of the Ukrainian people.

Historian Svyatoslav Lypovetskyi explained in an interview with Suspilne Ternopil that Stetsko and Shukhevych knew the Germans wouldn't let them reach Kyiv, so they needed to proclaim the Act quickly in Lviv.

For diplomatic reasons, a final item was added to the document, declaring cooperation with "Greater Germany," which drew criticism and repression from Soviet authorities and became a target of Russian propaganda.

The proclamation was broadcast twice on the radio, celebrating Ukrainian will. The next day, the Ukrainian National Committee in Krakow printed an information bulletin, the first and last. Ukrainian authorities were quickly established in many cities and villages.

Independent Ukraine: Act of proclamation of the Ukrainian state

Photo: The Ukrainian Institute of National Memory
 

Reaction and consequences

The planning for the proclamation of the Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State was done in strict secrecy, catching Nazi Germany off guard. On June 30, two German officers learned about the meeting and arrived much later. They were confused and warned that Germany wouldn't support an independent Ukraine.

The response to the Act's proclamation was harsh: repression against Ukrainian nationalists and murders ensued. Many OUN leaders, including Stepan Bandera and Yaroslav Stetsko, were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

Despite this repression, the Act's proclamation significantly impacted the struggle for Ukrainian independence. It inspired many Ukrainians to keep fighting against both Nazi and Soviet occupiers.

Significance in the history of Ukraine

The Act of Restoration of the Ukrainian State on June 30, 1941, is a crucial moment in Ukraine's history. Historians say this event shows the Ukrainian people's unstoppable desire for independence and freedom. Although the bid to restore statehood during those tough times failed, it became a lasting symbol of struggle and hope passed down through generations.

Today, Ukraine commemorates this event with activities like laying flowers at monuments, hosting scientific conferences, and organizing thematic exhibitions. This day highlights the importance of national unity and resilience in the fight for freedom.

Tags:
Read also:
  • News
2024, Wednesday
24 July
17:53
Slovak president threatens Ukraine over halted Russian oil transit
17:34
OPINION
Are Russians in Crimea preparing for a blockade?
17:15
Updated
Russia strikes Kharkiv, Lozova, killing civilian
16:53
Ukrainian partisans record arrival of old Russian military equipment in occupied Yevpatoria
16:33
UK intelligence evaluates impact of Ukraine's July 7 strike on Russian ammo depots
16:15
Review
Why does Ukraine need more Western weapons and what role do Tomahawks play
15:52
Man sentenced to 18 years for sending explosives to Ukrainian embassy in Spain
15:51
Updated
Russia strikes Ukraine's Kharkiv 5 times in one day, injuring 6 civilians
15:29
EU ambassadors approve €4.2bn tranche for Ukraine under Ukraine Facility
14:55
OPINION
Russia's 2024 combat aircraft production: can it make up for losses?
14:48
Updated
Car carrying Russia's military officer blown up in Moscow
14:31
Ukraine's FM Kuleba meets Chinese counterpart to discuss peace in Russia-Ukraine war
14:10
"It's realistic": Ukraine's top general says Ukraine has plan to reclaim Crimea
13:53
Pro-Russian parties gain key positions in Montenegro's new government
13:49
Exclusive
July 17-24 live war map: Will Biden let Russian troops take over New York?
13:30
Russia uses dead Ukrainian soldiers for transplantation, relatives of POWs suggest
13:12
July forest fires in Russian-occupied Luhansk region cause UAH 36.5 billion in damage
12:53
Ukraine's intelligence launches massive cyber attack on Russian banking system
12:32
Russia plans to increase number of troops in Ukraine to 690,000 - Ukraine’s top general
11:53
Air alert declared in Romania due to Russian attack on Ukraine, locals hear explosions
11:32
Russia tries to surround Ukrainian soldiers near Prohres, no order to withdraw - DeepState
11:12
Russia storms Ukrainian positions in 11 directions, Ukraine's forces repel 41 attacks near Pokrovsk
10:53
Review
Impressive attack on Rostov air base, body armor production competition in Ukraine. Serhiy Zgurets’ column
10:11
Russia attacks Ukraine with Shahed UAVs, causing casualties in Kharkiv, Odesa regions
09:59
France arrests Russian plotting destabilization during 2024 Olympics
09:35
Russia loses aircraft, 1,140 soldiers, 14 tanks in one day of war in Ukraine
2024, Tuesday
23 July
21:10
Review
Victorious news of 881st day of war: Ukrainian forces destroy UAV control station in south, down Russian Su-25 in Donetsk region
20:43
How many combat aircraft will Russia make in 2024 and will it compensate for losses
20:14
Exclusive
Defense Express explains why Crimea ferry was chosen as target for attack
19:50
Updated
Russian troops attack foster family home in Dnipropetrovsk region, injuring three children
19:21
Number of Russian troops in Zaporizhzhia region increases to 90,000 in three weeks
18:54
First visit of foreign minister to China since 2012: Kuleba tells what he will talk about in Beijing
18:25
Hungary, Slovakia initiate European Commission committee meeting due to Ukraine's ban on Lukoil's oil transit
17:57
Ukraine secures $3.9 billion grant from US: breakdown
17:30
European leaders look like fools because they followed Biden into war with Russia: Manipulation of world media for July 23
16:57
OPINION
Republicans will resist Biden's withdrawal
16:30
Russia attacks Kherson with drone, wounding civilian man
16:11
Exclusive
World must understand that war with Russia is matter of international law - publicist Riabchuk
15:49
Exclusive
Ukrainians build and donate FPV drones to military from home
15:27
Updated
Ukrainian Defense Forces down second Russian Su-25 in Donetsk region this month
More news